Tuesday, 7 May 2013

Review: Russian Songs - Boris Christoff - 1954-67 (EMI, 5CDs, 1992)



Mélodies Russes / Russian Songs / Russische Lieder
EMI CZS 7 67496 2
5 CDs, released in 1992

NB. The title of each song is first given in French for the sole reason that these French titles are the only ones that actually appear in the booklet.* In some cases during the translation, especially when the Russian original is better known by its first line, this is substituted for the more generic French title. For example, track 12 on CD 1, titled simply ''Élégie'', becomes ''Не искушай меня без нужды''. Needless to say, all English translations refer to the Russian titles, except in the very few cases (CD 2: 8-13) when French texts were originally set to music. No attempt has been made to keep a unified pattern of transliteration of the Russian names; as a general rule, composers appear as in the booklet, but poets may vary considerably.

CD 1 (64:24):
Mikhaïl Glinka (1803-1857)
1. La revue de nuit / Ночной смотр / Night watch 1
2. Dors, mon ange / Колыбельная песня / Lullaby 2
3. Qu'y a-t-il, ô jeune fille / Что, красотка молодая / How now, fair maiden 3
4. Où est donc notre rose? / Где наша роза / Where is our rose 4
5. L'alouette / Жаворонок / The lark2
6. Quand viendra le soir? / Ах ты, душечка, красна девица / Ah you, lovely maiden5
7. Le doute / Сомнение / Doubt 2
8. L'aïeul / Дедушка! девицы раз мне говорили / Many maidens I once knew 3
9. Seul avec tol / Как сладко с тобою мне быть / Ah, the sweetness of being besides you 6
10. Ne dis pas ce que ton cœur souffre / Не говори, что сердцу больно / Don't speak to a broken heart 7
11. Chant Juif / Еврейская песня / Jewish song 5
12. Élégie / Не искушай меня без нужды / Don't tempt me for nothing 8
13. Je me souviens du doux instant / Я помню чудное мгновенье / I remember a miraculous moment 4
Alexandre Borodine (1833-1887)
14. Chez ceux-là et chez nous / У людей-то в дому / In other people's homes 9
15. Chanson de la forêt somber / Песня тёмного леса / Song of the dark forest 10
16. Fleurs d'amour / Из слёз моих / From my tears sprout forth 11
17. La Reine de la mer / Морская Царевна / The Sea Queen 10
18. La Belle ne m'aime plus / Разлюбила красна девица / A beautiful maiden fell out of love 12
19. Le jardin merveilleux / Чудный сад / The wondrous garden 14
20. Mélodie arabe / Арабская Мелодия / Arabian melody 10
21. Une dissonance / Фальшивая Нота / The false note 10
22. La fille du pêcheur / Красавица рыбачка! / You beautiful fishermaiden 11

Boris Christoff, bass
Alexandre Labinsky, piano (1-13)
Alexandre Tcherepnine, piano (15-22)
Orchestre de l'Association des Concerts Lamoureux / Georges Tzipine (14)
Gaston Marchesini, cello (2, 4, 7, 10, 12)

Recorded: Paris, Salle Wagram, 12, 18-21.VI. & 10.X.1962 (1-13); 3-10.X.1966 & 23.X.1967 (14-22).

CD 2 (72:49):
Alexandre Borodine (1833-1887)
1. Écoutez mes amies, ma chanson / Слушайте, подруженьки, песенку мою / Listen, my friends, to my song 15
2. La Princesse endormie / Спящая Княжна / The sleeping princess 10
3. L'orgueilleux / Спесь / Darkness 16
4. Vers la patrie lointaine (arr. & orch. Glazunov) / Для берегов отчизны дальной / To the shores of the distant Fatherland 4
5. La mer / Море / Sea 10
6. L'aube et la fille / Что ты рано, зоренька / Dawn, why so early you come 17
7. Mes chants sont emplis de venin / Отравой полны мои песни / Poisoned are my songs 11
César Cui (1835-1918)
Quatre poemes de Jean Richepin, Op.44
8. I. Le Hun / ?
9. II. Berceuse / Lullaby
10. III. Le ciel est transi / Winter's day
11. IV. Les songeants / ?
12, Ici-bas, Op. 54 No. 5 / In this world 18
13. La tombe et la rose, Op. 32 No. 3 / The grave and the rose 19
14. L'amour d'un trépassé, Op. 5 No. 2 / Любовь мертвеца / The love of the dead 20
15. Naguère un songe, Op. 5 No. 3 / Сновидение / Dream 4
16. Pardonne!, Op. 5 No. 5 / Прости! не помни дней паденья /  9
17. Le désir, Op. 57 / Медлительно влекутся дни мои / The days drag slowly 4
18. Conjuration, Op. 55 No. 6 / Заклинание / Spell 4
19. Chanson de Mary, Op. 55 No. 2 / Song of Mary 4
20. Le chevalier emprisonné, Op. 55 No. 7 / ???? 20
21. Feuille d'album, Op. 86 No. 20 / В альбоме / An album leaf 20
22. Le prophete, Op. 55 No. 8 / С тех пор, как вечный судия / The Prophet 20
23. La statue de Tsarskoïe Selo, Op. 57 No. 17 Царскоцельская статуя / The statue in Tsarskoe selo 4
24. En mémoire de V.S. Stassov, Op. 86 No. 24 / In Memory of V. S. Stassov 21

Boris Christoff, bass
Alexandre Tcherepnine, piano (1-4, 6, 7)
Janine Reiss, piano (5, 8-13)
Serge Zapolsky, piano (14-24)
Orchestre de l'Association des Concerts Lamoureux / Georges Tzipine (4)
Maud-Martin Tortelier, cello (????)

Recorded: Paris, Salle Wagram, 3-10.X.1966 & 23.X.1967 (1-7); 17-26.X. & 6/7.XI.1967 (8-24).

CD 3 (65:47):
Mili Balakirev (1837-1910)
1. Intonation (orch. Tcherepnine) / Запевка / Singing 22
2. Chanson de Selim / Песня Селима / Song of Selim 20
3. Chanson / Песня / Song 20
4. Le sapin / Сосна / A spruce-tree stands alone 11
5. Nocturne / Вчерашняя ночь была так светла / The yesterday's night was so bright 23
6. Vision / Видение / Vision 23
7. Toujours, on me dit ''grand sot'' / Как наладили: “Дурак” / They call me "a fool" 22
8. Le sept novembre / ???? / November 7th 23
9. L'aurore / Заря / Dawn 23
10. Chanson hébraïque / Еврейская Мелодия / Jewish melody 24
11. Le desert / Пустыня / Desert 
12. Un chevalier / Рыцарь / A knight 25
13. Un rêve / Сон / A dream 20
14. Regarde, mon ami / Взгляни, мой друг / Listen, my friend 26
Nikolaï Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908)
15. Le sapin et la palmier, Op. 3 No. 1 / Ель и пальма / A spruce-tree stands alone 11
16. Sur les collines de Géorgie, Op. 3 No. 4 / На холмах Грузии / On the hills of Georgia 4
17. Le messager, Op. 4 No. 2 / Гонец / The messenger 11
18. Soir palsible, Op. 4 No. 4 / Тихо вечер догорает / The evening is calmly ending 27
19. Chanson hébraïque, Op. 7 No. 2 / Еврейская песня / Jewish song 22
20. Chanson de Zulelka, Op. 26 No. 4 / Песня зулейки / Zuleika's song 24
21. Au ciel, vers minuit. Op. 40 No. 2 / По небу полуночи ангел летел / The angel 20
22. J'étais venu, ti sais, au rendez-vous, Op. 40 No. 4 / Я в гроте ждал тебя в урочный час / I was waiting for you in the cave 28
23. La mer, Op. 46 No. 3 / Колышется море; волна за волной / The Sea 16

Boris Christoff, bass
Alexandre Tcherepnine, piano (2-14)
Alexandre Labinsky, piano (16-18)
Serge Zapolsky, piano (20-23)
Nadia Gedda-Nova, piano (19)    
Orchestre de l'Association des Concerts Lamoureux / Georges Tzipine (1)
Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire / André Cluytens (15)

Recorded: Paris, Salle Wagram, 20-31.III. & 23.X.1967 (1-14); 4, 7.II.1963 & 7-10, 13, 14.I.1964 (15-23).

CD 4 (69:46):
Nikolaï Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908)
1. Antchar, Op. 49 No. 1 / Анчар 4
2. Le prophète, Op. 49 No. 2 / Пророк / Prophet 4
3. Silencieusement mer profonde, Op. 50 No. 3 / Тихо море голубое / The sea is calm 28
4. Lentement coulent mes jours, Op. 51 No. 1 / Медлительно влекутся дни мои / The days drag 4
5. Fleur fanée, Op. 51 No. 3 / Цветок засохший, безуханный / The dry and odourless flower 4
6. Le triste jour s'eteint, Op. 51 No. 5 / Ненастный день потух / The sad day is over 4
Piotr Ilyich Tchaïkovsky (1840-1893)
7. Sérénade de Don Juan, Op.38 No.1 / Серенада Дон-Жуана / Don Juan's Serenade 16
8. Nuits étoilées, Op. 60 No. 12 / Нам звёзды кроткие сияли / The calm stars were shining 29
9. Petite chanson d'enfant, Op. 54 No. 16 / Детская песенка / Children's song 30
10. La nuit, Op. 60 No. 9 / Ночь / Night 29
11. Berceuse, Op. 16 No. 1 / Колыбельная песня / Lullaby 28
12. Reviens, au moins en reve, Op. 73 No. 2 / Ночь (Меркнет слабый свет свечи) / Night 31
13. Ne m'Interroge pas, Op. 57 No. 3 / Не спрашивай / Don't Ask Me 32
14. Le buveur, Op. 25 No. 1 / Как наладили: “Дурак” / They call me "a fool" 31
15. Priere du soir, Op. 27 No. 1 / На сон грядущий / At bedtime 33
16. Deception, Op. 65 No. 2 / Разочарование / Disappointment 14
17. Le canari, Op. 25 No. 4 / Канарейка / The canary 31
18. Vaine attente, Op. 6 No. 6 / Песнь Миньоны / Mignone's song 32
19. Je suis donc encor seul!, Op. 73 No. 6 / Снова, как прежде / 31
20. Légende, Op. 54 No. 5 / Легенда / Legend 34

Boris Christoff, bass
Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire / André Cluytens (1, 2)
Serge Zapolsky, piano (3-6)
Alexandre Labinsky, piano (7-20)
Gaston Marchesini, cello (8, 12, 18)

Recorded: Paris, Salle Wagram, 4, 7.II.1963 & 7-10, 13, 14.I.1964 (1-6); 28-30.IX., 1-8.X.1959 & 5-7.IV.1960 (7-20).

CD 5 (68:17)
Serge Rachmaninov (1873-1943)
1. Le destin, Op. 21 No. 1 / Судьба / Destiny 35
2. Tout est si beau, Op. 21 No. 7 / Здесь хорошо / It's nice here 36
3. Je la vis s'arrêter, Op. 26 No. 13 / Вчера мы встретились / We met yesterday 29
4. Dieu m'a ravi mes biens, Op. 26 No. 2 / Всё отнял у меня / Everything was taken from me 37
5. Le matin, Op. 4 No. 2 / Утро / Dawn 38
6. Tout passe, Op. 26 No. 15 / Проходит все / Everything passes 31
7. De grâce, épargne-mol, Op. 26 No. 8 / Пощады я молю! / I beg for mercy 39
8. Christ est ressuscité, Op. 26 No. 6 / Христос воскрес / Christ is resurrected 39
9. Un fragment d'Alfred de Musset, Op. 21 No. 6 / Отрывок из А. Мюссе / A fragment by Alfred de Musset 35
10. Chanson géorgienne, Op. 4 No. 4 / Не пой, красавица, при мне / Do not sing, my beauty, to me 4
11. Un rêve, Op. 8 No. 5 / Сон / A dream 11
12. La femme du soidat, Op. 8 No. 4 / Полюбила я на печаль свою / My sorrow I have grown to love 11
13. Ô mon champ bien aime, Op. 4 No. 5 / Уж ты, нива моя! / Oh, you, my harvestfield 16
14. Ne t'en vas pas, Op. 4 No. 1 / О, нет, молю, не уходи! / Oh, please, don't go 39
15. De tous tu es aimée, Op. 14 No. 6 / Тебя так любят все / Everybody loves you 16
16. L'ombre est triste, Op. 26 No. 12 / Ночь печальна / The sad night 40
6 Chants populaires russes
17. Le pouvoir maléfique / Масленица / Shrove Tuesday 41
18. Doubinouchka (arr. Potorjinsky) / Дубинушка / Song of the lumberjacks 5
19. Bandoura (arr. Potorjinsky) / Бандура / The bandore 5
20. Le long de la Piterskaïa (arr. Labinsky-Tchernoyarov) / Питерская / Down Piterskaya street 5
21. En descendant la Volga (arr. Alexandrov) / По Волге / Going down the Volga 5
22. Notchenka (arr. Potorjinsky) / Ноченька / Darling night 5

Boris Christoff, bass
Alexandre Labinsky, piano (1-16)
Chœurs russes de Féodor Potorjinsky (17-22)
Balalaikas orchestra (17, 20)

Recorded: Paris, Salle de la Mutualité, 1-6, 8.IX.1958 (1-16); X.1954 (17-22).

Texts by:
1 Jukovsky, Vasily Andreyevich (1783-1852)
2 Kukolnik, Nestor (1809-1868)
3 Baron Delvig, Anton Antonovich (1798-1831)
4 Pushkin, Alexander Sergeyevich (1799-1837)
5 Traditional
6 Ryndine, Piotr (?-?)
7 Pavlov, Nikolai Filippovich (1803-1864)
8 Baratinsky, Evgeny Abramovich (1800-1844)
9 Nekrassov, Nikolay Alekseyevich (1821-1877)
10 Borodine, Aleksandr Porfir’yevich (1833-1887)
11 Heine, Heinrich (1797-1856), translated by Lermontov (CD 3: 4), Mikhailov (CD 3: 15, 17) and Plechtcheev (CD 5: 11,12)
12 Vinogradov, ? (?-?)
14 Collin, Paul (1845-1915), translated by Gortchakova (CD 4: 16)
15 von Kruse, E. (?-?)
16 Tolstoi, Aleksey Konstantinovich (1817-1875)
17 Soloviev, S. (?-?)
18 Sully-Prudhomme, René-François (1839-1907)
19 Hugo, Victor (1802-1885)
20 Lermontov, Mikhail Yur’yevich (1814-1841)
21 Klark, ? (?-?)
22 Mey, Lev Alexandrovich (1822-1862)
23 Khomyakov, Aleksey Stepanovich (1804-1860)
24 Byron, George Gordon Noel (1788-1824), translation by Lermontov (CD 3: 10) and Ruelle (CD 3: 20)
25 Wilde, Karl von Wildenau(1832-1896)
26 Krassov, Vasili Ivanovich (1810-1854)
27 Fet, Afanasy Afanas'yevich (1820-1892)
28 Maikov, Apollon Nikolayevich (1821-1897)
29 Polonsky, Yakov Petrovich (1819-1898)
30 Aksakov, Konstantin Sergeyevich (1817-1860)
31 Rathaus, Daniil Maximovich (1868-1937)
32 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749-1832), translation by Strugovchikov (CD 4: 13) and Donaurov (CD 4: 18)
33 Ogaryov, Nikolai Platonovich (1813-1877)
34 Pleshcheyev, Aleksey Nikolayevich (1825-1893)
35 Apukhtin, Aleksey Nikolayevich (1841-1893)
36 Galina, Glafira Adol'fovna (1873-1942)
37 Tyutchev, Fyodor Ivanovich (1803-1873)
38 Yanov, M. L. (?-?)
39 Merezhkovsky, Dmitry Sergeyevich (1865-1941)
40 Bunin, Ivan Alekseyevich (1870-1953)
41 Serov, ? (?-?)

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To the best of my belief, Boris Christoff's dedication to the Russian song is without analogue in the recording history. It has often been remarked that only Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau's recording of all 463 of Schubert's songs for male voice, not to mention an extensive catalogue with lieder by Schumann, Brahms, Liszt, Mahler, Hugo Wolf and Richard Strauss, comes to mind as a colossal achievement of similar magnitude. Together with the 63 pieces in Mussorgsky's Complete Songs (EMI, 3 CDs, released in 1989), the 111 lieder on these five discs are, perhaps, the most precious recordings in the huge discography of Boris Christoff. Apart from a few occasional attempts in studio (e.g. the Russian romances for DG taped in 1975) or live in concert (e.g. some memorable alternative versions), these two box-sets collect Boris’ complete recordings of Russian songs. The amount may be smaller than in Fischer-Dieskau's case, but the scope is every bit as vast.

There are several aspects that set these recordings in a class of their own. Nobody who seriously cares for the art of Boris Christoff can afford to neglect them.

First of all, quite unlike the opera recordings, here you don't have to share him with anybody else. Even both of his studio recordings of Boris Godunov, where he sings three different parts, there are long stretches of music – marvellous music, to be sure, and stupendously sung too – where one misses Boris' unique timbre. This is not the case here. The lieder repertoire is the perfect opportunity to experience the full splendour of Boris Christoff's voice on an intimate scale. The only ''drawback'' is that it may just prove too intense to bear. On the other hand, it may turn out to be a life-changing experience.

Second and even more important, in these songs Boris Christoff exploits his voice to its very limits. This is something definitely not of this world, at least I cannot think of any other singer whose voice has so great a capacity for shade and nuance, let alone be combined with artistic personality of such power and originality. In no opera aria or ensemble can you hear such ravishing singing, very quiet yet very intense, soaring high through the Elysian Fields, as you can in ''Notchenka''. It is no wonder that this reportedly was one of Boris' greatest favourites among his recordings. It's an extraordinary performance. The surprising agility of the voice, the perfect diction even in the quietest passages, the heavenly high notes that take your breath away: all this is hard enough even for a tenor, let alone for a bass.

Last but not least, most of these songs are with piano accompaniment only, occasionally with violoncello too. This contributes significantly to the vocal magic, making the intimacy of whole experience almost overwhelming. This is not to say that the songs with orchestral accompaniment are in any was less affecting and should be neglected. Far from it. Borodine's ''Для берегов отчизны дальной'', to take but one example, is a poignant tribute of patriotism, by no means less moving because of the gentle orchestral accompaniment. Pushkin's wonderful text may well be accepted as something like the unofficial hymn of all exiles crushed by nostalgia.

It is silly to even try to give any idea of the profound effect these songs have on me. But several special favourites cannot be passed over without a few words. "The Prophet" by Rimsky-Korsakov may well be my most favourite recording. Ever. This is an absolutely unsurpassable performance. It is seldom, indeed, that everything in a work of art fits so well. Pushkin's wonderfully dramatic and evocative lyrics are fully matched by Rimsky-Korsakov's score that illuminates them as no recitation alone could. And yet, all this would have remained half-dead on paper had it not been for Boris Christoff's performance. This is something completely beyond any comparison – or description. Hear for yourself, but first brush up your Russian with Pushkin's poem:

Духовной жаждою томим,
в пустыне мрачной я влачился,
и шестикрылый серафим
на перепутье мне явился;

перстами легкими, как сон,
моих зениц коснулся он:
отверзлись вещие зеницы,
как у испуганной орлицы.

Моих ушей коснулся он,
и их наполнил шум и звон:
и внял я неба содроганье,
и горних1 ангелов полёт,
и гад морских подводный ход,
и дольней лозы прозябанье.

И он к устам моим приник
и вырвал грешный мой язык,
и празднословный, и лукавый,
и жало мудрыя змеи
в уста замершие мои
вложил десницею кровавой.

И он мне грудь рассек мечом,
и сердце трепетное вынул,
и угль, пылающий огнём,
во грудь отверстую водвинул.

Как труп, в пустыне я лежал.
И бога глас ко мне взывал2:
Восстань, пророк, и виждь, и внемли,
исполнись волею моей
и, обходя моря и земли,
глаголом жги сердца людей.

1 Пушкин: горний
2 Пушкин: возвал


Another often-listened-to gem is Glinka's ''Сомнение''. There is no grand drama here, nor any fierce histrionics. This is a personal confession: restrained, probing, shattering. Also, this song nicely illustrates the further pathos added by the weeping tone of the cello accompaniment. Kukolnik's text, of course, is indispensable.

Уймитесь, волнения страсти!
Засни, безнадежное сердце!
Я плачу, я стражду, -
Душа утомилась в разлуке;
Я стражду, я плачу, -
Не выплакать горя в слезах.
Напрасно надежду мне счастье гадает,
Не верю, не верю обетам коварным!
Разлука уносит любовь.

Как сон неотступный и грозный,
Мне снится соперник счастливый,
И тайно и злобно
Кипящая ревность пылает,
И тайно и злобно
Оружия ищет рука.
Напрасно измену мне ревность гадает,
Не верю, не верю коварным наветам.
Я счастлив, ты снова моя.
Минует печальное время, -
Мы снова обнимем друг друга,
И страстно и жарко забьется воскресшее сердце,
И страстно и жарко с устами сольются уста.


It's a great pity that so very few of these treasures are available on YT. Just about the only other I could find is Glinka's ''Lullaby'', also known as ''Спи, мой ангел''. It's a tender, tranquil and meltingly beautiful piece, with fine lyrics by Kukolnik.

Спи, мой ангел, почивай,
ясных глаз не открывай.
Баю, баюшки-баю,
баю, баюшки-баю.

Не спишь, а время улетит,
и грозно тучи соберутся,
и страсти проснутся,
и буря жизни закипит,
и страсти буйные проснутся,
и буря жизни закипит,
и буря жизни закипит.
Спаси и сохрани
его от бури, всемогущы!

Рассей земных волненый тучи,
и тихим счастьем осени.
Баю, баюшки-баю,
баю, баюшки-баю.

Спи, мой ангел, почивай,
ясных глаз не открывай.
Баю, баюшки-баю,
баю, баюшки-баю.
Чу! На пороге слышен шум...
Враги пришли, стучатся в двери...
Страданья и потери,
рой страшных грёз и горких дум,
страданья, жертвы и потери,
рой страшных грёз и горких дум. 
Спаси и сохрани
его от бури, всемогущий!

Рассей земных волненый тучи,
и тихим счастьем осени.
Баю, баюшки-баю,
баю, баюшки-баю.


Unfortunately, two caveats must be mentioned as well.

There are some strange omissions. ''Song of the Siberian Prisoner'' (1951, Gerald Moore, piano) and ''Song of the Volga Boatmen'' (1950, Issay Dobrowen, Philharmonia) are two of Boris Christoff's most famous recordings. Certainly, they are among his finest; I for one cannot imagine that they will ever be surpassed. Both songs are traditional and, though recorded earlier, should have found place in this collection. They would have fitted better here than they do in the CD with Russian Opera Arias and Songs. Most strangely, ''The Song of the Twelve Robbers'' has also been skipped. This delightful folk song was recorded in October 1954, together with the six pieces that feature the Potorjinsky Choir and conclude the fifth disc. The reasons for the omission remain obscure.

We must be very grateful to EMI for having made these precious recordings available on CD. As far as I know this is their first and only complete release on compact disc. Still, it's a great pity that EMI didn't in the least bother to make the presentation better. Not only all names appear only in French, which is not a little ridiculous when you come to think of it, but there are no lyrics whatsoever, which is deeply regrettable. Indeed, it is unforgivable. Most of these songs have astonishingly beautiful lyrics and Boris Christoff was famous for his dedication to the text, his extraordinary diction, and his ability to reveal the significance of every word. Moreover, the texts are of utmost importance. While listening to an opera you can often go without knowing or following the libretto, and though you're missing much, enough comes true to appreciate the greatness of the music. But in the lieder repertoire this is totally impossible without losing an essential part of the magic. The contrast with the Complete Songs of Mussorgsky, where all lyrics are presented in the original Russian (and in Cyrillic!) together with translations, is really sharp, almost painful.

We can always hope that one day EMI will re-issue these treasures with the appropriate booklet, but I don't think this will ever happen. They have at least had the decency to bring these precious recordings back in the catalogues. All five discs can be found among the eleven of The Mighty Boris, a recently released box-set in EMI's Icon series. No lyrics in the booklet, of course. You'll have to dig them up from the Internet. Fortunately, there is a wonderful site where you can find almost all of them, including transliterations, translations and much useful information besides.

Anyway, despite the dismal presentation, due probably to great laziness on EMI's part, the box-set is indispensable for every admirer of Boris Christoff. The sound quality is pretty good for its age and should satisfy everybody but the pathological audiophiles. Both the voice and the interpretation are quite beyond comment or comparison.


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* Scans from the booklet:






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