Monday, 20 July 2015

Photos: Beyond Jupiter - The Worlds of Tomorrow (1972) by Chesley Bonestell and Arthur Clarke

Plate I. Our own local galaxy, the Milky Way, as seen from a distance of 300 000 light-years. The white spot above the center nucleus marks the location of the Solar System. The galaxy contains at least 100 billion stars and is about 100 000 light-years across. In comparison, the Solar System is about 8 light-years across.

Plate II. Mars from its outer moon, Deimos, 12 500 miles above the equator. The South Polar Cap is on the extreme right. 

Plate III. A typical Martian landscape.
The inner moon, Phobos, shows a barely visible disk.

Plate IV. The zodiacal light as seen from Mercury,
the foreground illuminated by Venus and Earth.

Plate V. Jupiter four hours before encounter on March 1, 1979.
The spacecraft was launched from Earth on September 4, 1977.
Its distance from the planet is now 304 000 miles.
The Great Red Spot is visible at lower right and the shadow of a satellite is in transit.

Plate VI. The Solar System. Sun, planets and larger satellites are shown to scale; smaller satellites would actually be invisible. From left to right: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

Plate VII. Jupiter from its closest large satellite, Io, 261 000 miles distant. The dark side of the planet can never be observed from Earth; auroral displays and chemical reactions in the atmosphere may permit some features to be seen.

Plate VIII. Jupiter from its closest satellite, Jupiter V (Amalthea), 112 600 miles distant, showing typical cloud formations, the Great Red Spot and the shadow of an outer satellite in transit.

Plates IX and X. The two faces of Saturn's satellite Iapetus.
Franklin and Cook have suggested that the brighter side is covered with "snow" and that the other side is nearly barren, the "snow" having been eroded by a meteor swarm. In the "snow"-covered painting Iapetus is illuminated solely by light from Saturn; 
in the other, illumination comes from the Sun. 

Plate XI. Saturn from its largest moon, Titan, 760 000 miles away.  Because of its size (3 500 miles in diameter), Titan is one of the few satellites able to retain an atmosphere; hence the blue sky.

Plate XII. Launched from Earth on October 17, 1977, the spacecraft passed close to Saturn's satellite Titan, and encountered Saturn on May 24, 1981. Now passing close to another satellite, Rhea, shown 15 000 miles away, the spacecraft will escape from the Solar System and join the stars.

Plate XIII. The rings of Saturn as seen from just above the cloud layer at 15,5 degrees north.

Plate XIV. Uranus from its third moon, Umbriel, 166 000 miles distant. The second moon, Ariel, is also visible.

Plate XV. Neptune from Triton, 220 000 miles away.
Although appearing some 250 times the area of the full Moon as seen from Earth, Neptune would give only about the same amount of illumination because of its great distance from the Sun.

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